Feeding Small Mammals: A Guide for Rabbit, Guinea Pig, and Hamster Owners


Small mammals like rabbits, guinea pigs, and hamsters make wonderful pets. They’re cute, relatively low-maintenance, and can form strong bonds with their human caretakers. However, each of these animals has unique dietary needs that must be met to ensure their health and longevity. This guide will delve into the specifics of feeding rabbits, guinea pigs, and hamsters, providing you with the knowledge you need to keep your small mammal healthy and happy.

Chapter 1: Understanding Your Pet’s Dietary Needs


Rabbits are herbivores and their diet should primarily consist of hay, which aids in digestion and provides the necessary fiber for a healthy gut. Fresh vegetables and a small amount of pellets can supplement their diet, providing additional nutrients. Fruits can be given as occasional treats, but due to their high sugar content, they should be limited.

Guinea Pigs

Guinea pigs are also herbivores, but unlike rabbits, they cannot produce Vitamin C on their own and need to obtain it from their diet. A guinea pig’s diet should consist of hay, high-quality guinea pig pellets, fresh vegetables, and some fruits.


Hamsters are omnivores, meaning they eat both plant and animal matter. In the wild, their diet includes grains, seeds, vegetables, and insects. Domestic hamsters should be fed a commercial hamster mix that includes a variety of seeds, grains, and pellets. Fresh vegetables and fruits can be given as a supplement to their diet, and occasional protein sources like boiled eggs or mealworms can also be offered.

Chapter 2: Choosing the Right Foods


For both rabbits and guinea pigs, hay should make up the majority of their diet. Timothy hay is a popular choice, but other varieties like orchard grass or meadow hay can also be used. Alfalfa hay is richer and can be given to young or pregnant animals, but it’s too high in calories and calcium for adult rabbits and guinea pigs.


When choosing pellets for your rabbit or guinea pig, look for a high-fiber, low-protein, and low-calcium option. Avoid mixes that include seeds, nuts, or dried fruits, as these can lead to obesity and other health issues. For hamsters, a commercial hamster mix should provide a balanced diet. Avoid mixes with too many sunflower seeds or peanuts, as these are high in fat.

Vegetables and Fruits

Fresh vegetables can be given daily to rabbits, guinea pigs, and hamsters. Leafy greens like romaine lettuce, kale, and spinach are good choices. Avoid iceberg lettuce as it’s low in nutrients and can cause diarrhea. Fruits should be given sparingly due to their high sugar content. Always wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly to remove any pesticides.

Chapter 3: Feeding Schedules and Portions


Adult rabbits should have constant access to hay. They can be fed a small amount of pellets daily (about 1/4 cup per 5 pounds of body weight). Fresh vegetables can be given daily, but fruits should be limited to 1-2 tablespoons per 5 pounds of body weight and given only a few times a week.

Guinea Pigs

Like rabbits, guinea pigs should always have access to hay. They can be fed about 1/8 cup of pellets per day, along with a cup of fresh vegetables. Fruits should be given sparingly, no more than 1-2 times per week.


Hamsters should be fed a tablespoon of hamster mix daily. Fresh vegetables can be given in small amounts, and fruits should be limited due to their sugar content. Protein sources like boiled eggs or mealworms can be given 1-2 times per week.

Chapter 4: Foods to Avoid

Certain foods can be harmful to small mammals. These include:

  • Chocolate and other sweets
  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Onions and garlic
  • Avocado
  • Rhubarb
  • Raw potatoes
  • Any spoiled or moldy food

Chapter 5: Monitoring Your Pet’s Health

Regularly monitor your pet’s weight and eating habits. Sudden changes can indicate a health problem and should be addressed by a vet. Also, check your pet’s teeth regularly. Overgrown teeth can make eating difficult and are a common issue in small mammals.


Feeding your small mammal properly is crucial for their health and well-being. By understanding their unique dietary needs and providing a balanced diet, you can ensure your pet lives a long, healthy life. Always consult with a vet if you have any concerns about your pet’s diet or health.

Remember, this guide is intended as a general overview. Always consult with a vet for advice tailored to your specific pet.